Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
What causes ADHD?
Understandably, one of the first questions parents ask when they learn their child has an attention disorder is “Why? What went wrong?” Health professionals stress that since no one knows what causes Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, it doesn’t help parents to look backward to search for possible reasons. There are too many possibilities to pin down the cause with certainty. It is far more important for the family to move forward in finding ways to get the right help for anxiety disorders. Scientists, however, do need to study causes in an effort to identify better ways to treat, and perhaps some day, prevent ADHD. They are finding more and more evidence that ADHD does not stem from home environment, but from biological causes. When you think about it, there is no clear relationship between home life and ADHD. Not all children from unstable or dysfunctional homes have ADHD. And not all children with ADHD come from dysfunctional families. Knowing this can remove a huge burden of guilt from parents who might blame themselves for their child’s behavior.
Over the last decades, scientists have come up with possible theories about what causes Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Some of these theories have led to dead ends, some to exciting new avenues of investigation.
One disappointing theory was that all anxiety disorders and learning disabilities were caused by minor head injuries or undetectable damage to the brain, perhaps from early infection or complications at birth. Based on this theory, for many years both disorders were called “minimal brain damage” or “minimal brain dysfunction.” Although certain types of head injury can explain some cases of attention disorder, the theory was rejected because it could explain only a very small number of cases. Not everyone withADHD or LD has a history of head trauma or birth complications.
…The next step will be to research WHY there is less activity in these areas of the brain. Scientists at National Institute of Mental Health hope to compare the use of glucose and the activity level in mild and severe cases of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. They will also try to discover why some medications used to treat ADHD work better than others, and if the more effective medications increase activity in certain parts of the brain.
Researchers are also searching for other differences between those who have and do not have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Research on how the brain normally develops in the fetus offers some clues about what may disrupt the process. Throughout pregnancy and continuing into the first year of life, the brain is constantly developing. It begins its growth from a few all-purpose cells and evolves into a complex organ made of billions of specialized, interconnected nerve cells. By studying brain development in animals and humans, scientists are gaining a better understanding of how the brain works when the nerve cells are connected correctly and incorrectly. Scientists at NIMH and other research institutions are tracking clues to determine what might prevent nerve cells from forming the proper connections. Some of the factors they are studying include drug use during pregnancy, toxins, and genetics.
Research shows that a mother’s use of cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs during pregnancy may have damaging effects on the unborn child. These substances may be dangerous to the fetus’s developing brain. It appears that alcohol and the nicotine in cigarettes may distort developing nerve cells. For example, heavy alcohol use during pregnancy has been linked to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a condition that can lead to low birth weight, intellectual impairment, and certain physical defects. Many children born with FAS show much the same hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity as children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Drugs such as cocaine–including the smokable form known as crack–seem to affect the normal development of brain receptors. These brain cell parts help to transmit incoming signals from our skin, eyes, and ears, and help control our responses to the environment. Current research suggests that drug abuse may harm these receptors. Some scientists believe that such damage may lead to ADHD.
Toxins in the environment may also disrupt brain development or brain processes, which may lead to ADHD. Lead is one such possible toxin. It is found in dust, soil, and flaking paint in areas where leaded gasoline and paint were once used. It is also present in some water pipes. Some animal studies suggest that children exposed to lead may develop symptoms associated with ADHD, but only a few cases have actually been found.
Other research shows that attention disorders tend to run in families, so there are likely to be genetic influences. Children who have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder usually have at least one close relative who also has ADHD. And at least one-third of all fathers who had ADHD in their youth bear children who have ADHD. Even more convincing: the majority of identical twins share the trait. At the National Institutes of Health, researchers are also on the trail of a gene that may be involved in transmitting ADHD in a small number of families with a genetic thyroid disorder.
Panic Documentary Panic – A film to help you cope From: Amiden2009
Oct 28, 2011 This trailer is about a documentary featuring Kim Basinger, Earl Campbell and others struggling with anxiety and panic disorder.
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